Galvanic coupling HBC, also termed waveguide HBC [ 40 ], utilizes the ionic fluids in body and volume conduction properties of tissues [ 39 ] to convey electrical signal.
The human body was considered as a circuit of lumped resistors paralleled with lumped capacitors. The Development of Human Body Communication 2. For high risk group people, the continuous monitoring of physiological data helps to early detect and prevent the diseases [ 5 ].
And most of the electric field will concentrate around the tip of arm wearing transmitter [ 19 ]. And thus it may potentially lower the power consumption of the system and helpful for miniaturization.
Electrical Properties of Human Tissues and HBC Signal Propagation Models After the pioneering work of successfully implementing HBC, considerable researches have been conducted by research groups to investigate the channel gain at different distances and regions of body such as arm, thorax, leg, and the back [ 4344 ].
Ultrasound Guidance Ann Emerg Med Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages November Ultrasonographically guided internal jugular vein catheterization in the ED setting was associated with a higher successful insertion rate and a lower complications rate.
American Surgery ; 59 9 In addition, HBC does not require the antenna, which can minimize the size of chip.
By using HBC for data transfer among the wearable or implantable healthcare monitoring devices, the low power transmission is important, not only for avoiding information leakage or interference to other BANs, but also for saving power the decrease of transmission power can lower the power consumption of power amplifier, which accounts for a significant portion of the HBC system power consumption.
For galvanic coupling HBC, the first prototype achieved only 0. That motivates us to summarize the channel characteristics and find out the rule of communication performance i.
Compared with capacitive coupling HBC, galvanic coupling HBC operates in lower Anesthesis medicine and is less influenced by the environment, which makes the signal transmission much more stable and reliable.
Various transmission parameters carrier frequency, modulation scheme, and transmission power were adopted to achieve different data rates.
A large electric field Et is introduced to the human body via the signal electrode of transmitter [ 31 ]. Recently, the channel characteristics in HBC, such as gain and phase, were found to have great relevance with some physiological parameter, such as muscle contraction or relaxation, body fluid hydration, and dehydration.
Generally, the transmission distance of capacitive coupling HBC system is in several tens to even hundreds of centimeters. From the table, the signal propagation models are based on the static body behavior.
Communication Performance of HBC Systems The communication performance of HBC systems was investigated by using simulations [ 37 ] and experiments [ 17616465 ].
The circuit model for these two coupling methods was also addressed in [ 44 ], and it was found that two-electrode arrangement achieved higher gain than the four-electrode arrangement. Then a more complex layered tissue skin, muscle, and bone model was developed.
Ultrasound guided cannulation is ideal, but in its absence Trendelenburg tilt will increase IJV diameter and improve the chance of successful cannulation. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Parameters From the main results of signal propagation model, the channel gain is generally analyzed.
Finally, the recommended future studies are provided. Generally, HBC can be implemented in two ways: The History of Electrical Property and Human Tissue In the history of human beings, the interests on body tissues were inevitable.
For instance, electrical impedance tomography EIT has been developed to image the internal organs and structure of body for medical diagnosis; electrical stimulation has been adopted for medical therapy and prosthesis.
Three main dispersion regions denoted by, and region at respective frequencies of low frequency range, RF range, and gigahertz frequency range, response for the behavior of tissue. The majority of electric current in the galvanic coupling HBC travels through muscle.
Moreover, the experimental issues, such as electrodes and grounding strategies, are also discussed. HBC operates in low frequency especially for galvanic coupling HBCwhich can potentially simplify the design, minimize the power consumption in HBC system, the detected circuit, filter, and power amplifier have the component of CMOS circuit, in which the dynamic power is proportional to the carrier frequency.
For example, the nerve, muscle, and gland can be stimulated to produce anesthesis [ 26 ] by milliampere electric currents.To receive news and publication updates for Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, enter your email address in the box below.
Back to top Central Venous Catheters and Central Venous Access Back to top Central Lines. IJ Lines. Go straight through medial portion of lateral head of SCM muscle.
William C. Welch, MD, FACS, FICS | Chair, Department of Neurosurgery at Pennsylvania Hospital | Neurosurgery | Penn Medicine.  kwjWXajbWjnQta 投稿者：Archie 投稿日：/10/13(Mon) More or less not much going on worth mentioning.
Pretty much nothing seems worth. VIGILANT ANESTHESIA INC Nurse Anesthetist, Certified Registered (1) A licensed registered nurse with advanced specialty education in anesthesia who, in collaboration with appropriate health care professionals, provides preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care to patients and assists in management and resuscitation of critical .Download