A stoichiometric mixture unfortunately burns very hot and can damage engine components if the engine is placed under high load at this fuel—air mixture. There are three main ways of stirring the mixture.
In practice this is never quite achieved, due primarily to the very short time available in an internal combustion engine for each combustion cycle.
ELB was produced in both open-loop and closed-loop variants; the open-loop systems produced exhaust clean enough for many vehicle variants so equipped to pass and US Federal emissions regulationsand Canadian emissions regulations throughwithout a catalytic converter.
Lean-burn engines do not work well with modern 3-way catalytic converter —which require a pollutant balance at the exhaust port so they can carry out oxidation and reduction reactions—so most modern engines run at or near the stoichiometric point.
In doing so, it mixes the fuel and air fully by squashing it into the combustion The spark plug fires and ignites the mixture inside the combustion chamber. However, the extra work done in pumping air through the throttle reduces efficiency.
Ultra lean mixtures with very high air—fuel ratios can only be achieved by direct injection engines. While lean-burn gas engines offer higher theoretical thermal efficiencies, transient response and performance may be compromised in certain situations.
Engines equipped with ELB used fixed-timing distributors without the traditional vacuum and centrifugal timing advance mechanisms. In practice the mixture strength varies between about These compounds all alter the stoichiometric ratio, with most of the additives pushing the ratio downward oxygenators bring extra oxygen to the combustion event in liquid form that is released at time of combustions; for MTBE -laden fuel, a stoichiometric ratio can be as low as The closed-loop version of ELB used an oxygen sensor and a feedback carburetorand was phased into production as emissions regulations grew more stringent starting inbut open-loop ELB was used as late as in markets with lax emissions regulations, on vehicles such as the Mexican Chrysler Spirit.
The formation of metallic palladium makes the catalyst vulnerable for sintering, which leads to deactivation during long-term regeneration.
The main drawback of lean-burning is that a complex catalytic converter system is required to reduce NOx emissions. The regeneration of sulfur poisoned catalyst takes place stepwise: This lean-burn ability by the necessity of the limits of physics, and the chemistry of combustion as it applies to a current gasoline engine must be limited to light load and lower RPM conditions.
The amount of fuel drawn into the engine is much lower than a typical gasoline engine, which operates at Heavy-duty lean-burn gas engines admit twice as much  air as theoretically needed for complete combustion into the combustion chambers. Vehicles that use oxygen sensors can monitor the air—fuel ratio with an air—fuel ratio meter.
The ELB computer also directly drove the ignition coil, eliminating the need for a separate ignition module. The flame front spreads to the lean gas air mixture in the cylinder.
Sulfur poisoned CH4 oxidation catalyst is active in dry gas feed. This method was used in World War II.
Abstract One way to lower CO2 and other harmful emissions of the transportation sector is the development of natural gas fueled vehicles. The piston begins its upward stroke to compress the mixture. Engine management systems[ edit ] The stoichiometric mixture for a gasoline engine is the ideal ratio of air to fuel that burns all fuel with no excess air.
Working out how best to design the engine so it can cope with very lean fuel mixtures is a very difficult process. Other terms used[ edit ] There are other terms commonly used when discussing the mixture of air and fuel in internal combustion engines.Lean mixtures are more efficient but may cause higher levels of nitrogen oxides.
Some engines are designed with features to allow lean-burn. For precise air-fuel ratio calculations, the oxygen content of combustion air should be specified because of different air density due to different altitude or intake air temperature, possible dilution by ambient water vapor, or enrichment by oxygen additions.
Title: Lean-burn engine technology increases efficiency, reduces NOx emissions Author: Cummins Power Generation Subject: Engine-powered generators fueled by natural gas reduce the amount of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and, with a more efficient combustion process, produce more power from the same amount of fuel.
After decades of studying, the active phase of low temperature CH 4 combustion catalyst under lean-burn conditions has been concluded to be a mixed Pd-PdO x phase.
The lean-burn system improves the pre-mixing of fuel and air prior to ignition – delivering a more complete combustion of the fuel and, as a result, lower NOx and particulate emissions, both of which are increasingly important to airline customers in terms of operating.
In March, a new demonstrator engine by Rolls-Royce, featuring a cutting-edge lean-burn and low-emissions combustion system for future jet engine programs, began icing tests at the Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research in Manitoba, Canada.
TAPS (Twin Annular Premixing Swirler) is the GE lean burn combustion system that has entered service on the GEnx engine for the and wide-body applications.Download